Effects of climate change on the major crops in Asia

Date and Time: January 21, 2014 (Tuesday) - 14.00 - 17.30
Chair : Takuji Kiura
Co-Chairs : Kei Tanaka (NARO, GRENE-ei CAAM) and Budi I. Setiawan (IPB)
Members :
Objectives : Climate Change is a global issues in the world. For Agriculture, estimations of its effects on major crops are necessarily to adapt it. GRENE-ei CAAM (https://grene.agrid.org/ ) is a Japanese project for Asia monsoon region and Indonesia is a target country. In this workshop, Field monitoring systems, crop models, downscaled meteorological data, satellite imaging, GIS analysis, and others to observe and estimate effects on major crops in Indonesia under climate change will be reported and discussed for future collaboration.
Target Audience : Member of Agriculture Working Group, Earth Monitoring Working Group, Sensor Network Working Group, and GRENE-ei CAAM project, etc.
Expected Number of Participants : 30
Agenda : Session Chair: Budi I. Setiawan (IPB), Kei Tanaka(NARO)
  • Sensor Networks
    • Pujo Laksono (ITB)
      "Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network for the Purpose of Aeroponics Growing Chamber Monitoring and Control System", (25 min)

      Abstract: One of the foremost problems in Indonesia's agricultural sector is related to the high production costs. As the highest cost driver in a cultivation season is related to seeds availability, quality, and procurement, therefore a research in collaboration with Vegetable R&D Facility (Balitsa) under Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture was done.

      This research was focused on designing and implementing wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN) for the control, monitoring, and conditioning of growing chambers inside a greenhouse. Aeroponics growing chambers which are essentials to cultivate disease-free G0 potato seeds require strict treatment of water, nutrients, and also conditioned temperature and humidity. With the implementation of WSAN, a flexibility in sensor nodes management was introduced, where the number of active growing chambers might vary. Main improvement after implementation was gained in a form of a monitored system and user-adjustability settings, which are essential for the Balitsa researchers. Other improvements include power and nutrients efficiency.

      This research was done as one of the Indonesian Smart Farming efforts, a roadmap designed to empower and integrate nationwide agricultural activities through information and communication technology.

  • GRENE-ei CAAM related Activities
    • Kei Tanaka (NARO, GRENE-ie CAAM)
      "Improvement of ORYZA2000 Execution Environment for a Decision Support System to Optimize Planting Date of Rice Farming in Rainfed Area", (25 min)

      Abstract: Because of climate change, extreme weather events such as uncertainties in rainfall and droughts, rainfed rice farming systems become more vulnerable in the Asian monsoon area. It is important to get a knowledge for farmers to adapt them on these conditions better. The development of the decision support system (DSS) to optimize the yield of rice is proceeding by some projects. As a rice growth model, "Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT)" is used in the "Climatic Changes and Evaluation of Their Effects on Agriculture in Asian Monsoon Region (CAAM)" project under "Green Network of Excellence - environmental information (GRENE-ei)" program by MEXT Japan, and ORYZA2000 is used in the "Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Rice Areas (CCARA)" project under IRRI-Japan collaboration. As for the meteorological data of the input of the growth model, the output of weather forecasting model is linked.

      A common problem to either system is an execution time of the growth model. This problem is caused in either case, when the growth model is executed in real time for one point, or when it is executed on several conditions in advance for all grid points in the target area. It is necessary to finish execution of the growth model within tolerable waiting time for user in case of real time execution. It takes several days to execute the growth model in case of advanced execution because it is executed repeatedly for tens of thousands points while changing the conditions.

      In this presentation, we mainly describe the method to shorten execution time in real time execution of ORYZA2000. We hold down the execution time within tolerable waiting time by applying three methods of (a) using high spec CPU, (b) introducing multi-threading, and (c) omission of unnecessary calculation.

    • Satyanto. K. Saptomo, Budi. I. Setiawan, Chusnul Arif, Sutoyo, Liyantono, I Wayan Budiasa, Hisaki Kato, Takao Nakagiri, Junpei Kubota (IPB)
      "Field Monitoring Stations Network for Supporting The Development of Integrated Water Resources Management", (25 min)

      Abstract:Field monitoring systems had been installed in six locations of interest for field weather and environment monitoring for the support the development of Integrated Water Resources Management in two watersheds, namely Saba in Bali province and Jeneberang in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The stations are situated in down, mid and upstream of the watershed with intentions to obtain information of variation of the weather and soil that represent the variations of the parameters in the respective watershed. The system includes automatic weather station, soil monitoring system and Field Router remote monitoring system which deliver data on daily basis through internet by using. The fields soil physical condition were also collected, so that by using the acquired data can be used almost directly to figure the water status of the field regarding to the agricultural practice in the locations. Data handling procedures had been developed to process the data and calculate the water balance of each field. The result had given the description of the current condition of each field which can be basis of local field water management assessment. This real time monitoring networks can support the water management in the watersheds which are facing water related risks due to land use change and climate change.

    • Chusnul Arif, Budi. I. Setiawan, Masaru Mizoguchi, Satyanto. K. Saptomo, Sutoyo, Liyantono, I Wayan Budiasa, Hisaki Kato, Junpei Kubota, Tetsu It
      "Performance of Paddy Fields Monitoring System in Indonesia", (25 min)

      Abstract: Since 2010, we have installed paddy fields monitoring system in Indonesia in several locations. The performance of this system was evaluated in this paper. Field monitoring system using FieldRouter (FR) equipped with an in situ camera and connected to meteorological and soil data loggers. All parameters were measured and monitored at intervals of 25 minutes. Then, the data and plant image were daily transmitted to a remote server by means of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) by FR. During the experiment, the monitoring system was work well in specific location such as in Nagrak, West Java and Titab, Saba watershed in Bali, but there was also problem in the others location such as in PT. Sang Hyang Seri, Sukamandi in West Java and Lokapaksa, Saba watershed in Bali. Although this monitoring did not send real-time data, the data were stored in the field data loggers. By adopting quasi-real time monitoring, it was more power saving and Internet cost effective than the real time monitoring. The performance of FR depends on the field solar power supply and the Internet connection. In case there are any problems in the coverage of the Internet connection within the data transmitting time, the plant images data are lost and data were not sent. Moreover, data were also lost when the data logger battery was depleted or the sensor cable was unplugged from the logger or the sensor was broken. The next step of this monitoring is to find suitable way in minimizing problem in the field such as involved the local people to maintain the system. Also, we should develop data management system in advanced for analyzing the data with specific purposes.

    • Budi I. Setiawan, Chusnul Arif, Masaru Mizoguchi, Hisaaki Kato, Jumpei Kubota
      "Water Productivity and Emission Factor in SRI Paddy Field under Various Water Regimes", (25 min)

      Abstract: Enhancing water productivity in paddy fields is becoming a more critical issue in the context of climate change. While various techniques have been developed to use irrigation water more effectively to meet the growing demand for water when cultivating paddy rice, most have not increased crop production, and sometimes have contributed to declines in yield. Substantial increases in both crop yield and water productivity have been reported from SRI paddy fields by making certain modifications in crop and water management. While there is documentation of the beneficial effects of reduced water levels on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from conventional paddy fields, there is little published information about these effects in paddy fields under SRI management. We have been measuring methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from SRI paddy fields since 2008 and have developed artificial neural network (ANN) models to ascertain interrelationships between CH4 and N2O emissions with easily measurable inputs such as soil pH, soil moisture, and soil temperature. Field experiments were conducted in 4 plots each having an area of 4 m x 4 m where careful measurement was possible. To consider the effects of differences in soil moisture content, the groundwater level in each plot was varied between 5 cm to 35 cm below the soil surface. CH4 and N2O were sampled from closed chambers and measured with gas chromatography. The results showed that having a lower groundwater level produced lower soil moisture and lower pH, but also higher soil temperature. The various interactions contributed to more complicated responses and relationships of CH4 and N2O than are usually assumed or asserted, that CH4 and N2O emissions are simply and necessarily inverse. It was seen that CH4and N2O emissions varied considerably, and not always inversely, in response to differences in soil pH, moisture, and temperature that resulted with different regimes of water management. ANN models achieved reasonable predictive power, producing an R2 of 0.72 and 0.70 for CH4 and N2O, respectively. It was observed when using the model to estimate CH4and NO2emissions that lowering the groundwater level reduced biomass production, crop yield, and water productivity without any significant further impact on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Distinguish from other effects
    • Nurhaziqah Supari (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
      "Effect of different fertilizers on plant productivity in Malaysian upland rice", (25 min)

      Abstract: In Malaysia, upland rice cultivation is practiced mostly by the rural communities living especially in Sabah and Sarawak. There is limited research conducted on upland rice due to lack of information available and its undesirable traits including low yield. Recent study is conducted to investigate the effect of fertilizers in the improvement of upland rice productivity. Two local upland rice landraces, Panderas and SK-1 are grown under four fertilizer treatments; no added fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, biochemical fertilizer and bio organic fertilizer. The treatments will be evaluated for agronomic characteristics (plant height, days to maturity, number of tillers and number of panicles) and yield components (100-grain weight, yield per plant, number of grains per panicle and panicle fertility). The bio organic fertilizer is predicted to give the best performance to the plants and eventually shows the improved productivity of the upland rice. This study is anticipated to provide knowledge on the usage of fertilizer to improve the production technology of upland rice particularly in Malaysia.

    • Nurhaziqah Supari (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia),
      "Microbial effects on seed germination in Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.)", (25 min)

      Abstract: Seed germination is the basis of plant growth as it determines the viability of rice. A laboratory experiment was conducted to observe the effect of microbial inoculation on seed germination and seedling growth of two lowland rice varieties (Mahsuri and Sri Malaysia 1) and two upland rice landraces (Panderas and SK-1). The experiment was conducted using wet filter paper in Petri dish. The design of the experiment was completely randomized (CRD) with three replicates. Three selected growth promoting microbes Nitrosomonas europaea, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Acinetobacter sp. were used in the experiment. Seeds inoculated with those microbes and the Petri dish were kept in the dark for five days and subsequently subjected to light condition for another five days. The seeds germination and other related attributes were measured. Significance and non significant differences were observed for growth parameters and germination traits, respectively. Among the microbes, Nitrosomonas europaea performed better in root length and combination of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Acinetobacter sp. promotes the best growth of shoot. It is therefore concluded that growth promoting microbes may have positive effects on growth parameter rather than germination traits at germination traits. The findings of this study could assist further improvement of early seedling establishment as the basis of crop growth.

Video Conferencing : Yes
Seating Arrangement : Classroom
Remarks :

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