DMSP Nighttime Lights Users Workshop
 Chairman : Chris Elvidge (chris.elvidge@noaa.gov)
Earth Monitoring Working Group
 Members :  
 Objectives :

The objective of the workshop is to provide a forum for review and discussion of recent advances in DMSP nighttime lights products and applications for these products.

 Target Audience : Scientists using DMSP nighttime lights
 Expected Number of Participants :  30
 Agenda :

Session One: 
1. "Satellite Observed Nighttime Lights of Vietnam: 1992-2010" - Chris Elvidge (NOAA-USA)   Slide Download Here
Abstract: NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) serves as the long term archive for data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The archive extends from 1992 to the present. DMSP are polar orbiting satellites capable of collecting global data, both day and night. The primary imager on board is the Operational Linescan System (OLS) which has a visible and thermal bands designed for cloud detection. At night the visible band is intensified a million fold for the detection of moonlit clouds using a photomultipier tube. In addition to moonlit clouds, the OLS detects faint lights at the Earth's surface. This presentation will review the spatial and temporal pattern of four types of lights found in or offshore from Vietnam: cities and towns, fires, gas flares and lit fishing boats.

2. " Methods Used For the 2009 Stable Lights " - Kim Baugh (CIRES-USA) and Chris Elvidge (NOAA-USA)   Slide Download Here
Presentation will be via You Tube.
Abstract: Since 1994 NGDC has had an active program focused on global mapping of nighttime lights using the data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors. The basic product is an annual cloud-free composite, which averages the brightness of lights over NGDC year from the cloud-free segments of the individual orbits. The thermal band is used for cloud detection. Over the years NGDC has developed automatic algorithms for screening the quality of the nighttime visible band observations to remove areas contaminated by sunlight, moonlight and solar glare. In the stable lights product generation fires are removed based on the high brightness and short duration. Background noise is removed by setting thresholds based on digital values found in areas known to be free of detectable lights. In 2010 NGDC release the version 4 time series of stable lights, spanning 1992-2010. These are available at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/downloadV4composites.html. The presentation will review the steps involved in making the v.4 stable lights and some of the changes in lights that can be observed.

3. " Methods Used For the 2006 Radiance Lights " - Daniel Ziskin (CIRES-USA), Kim Baugh (CIRES-USA), Feng Chi Hsu (U. Tokyo-Japan), Chris Elvidge (NOAA-USA), Tilottama Ghosh (CIRES-USA)   Slide Download Here
Presentation will be via You Tube.
Abstract: DMSP-OLS sensor is unique for its ability to collect global low light imaging data of the earth at night. The nighttime visible band detector observes radiances about one million times dimmer than most other Earth observing satellites. However, that sensitivity becomes a liability when the gain is turned up high for the detection of moonlit clouds. With only six bit quantization, the signal saturates on bright urban cores. However, a limited set of observations obtained at low lunar illumination were obtained where the gain of the detector was set significantly lower than its typical operational setting (sometimes by a factor of 100). Using these sparse data, which are not saturated in urban cores, it is possible to blend them with the operational observations to create a hybrid product. The low gain collections provide unsaturated data of urban centers and the high gain operational data provide detections of dim lighting present on the fringes of urban centers and populated rural areas. This paper will describe the steps used to make the radiance lights product for data collected in 2006 by the DMSP F16 satellite.

Session Two:
1. " Spatial Distribution of Rice Agricultural Land and Its Change by Night Time Light Data " Kanichiro MATSUMURA (Kwansei Gakuin University-Japan), Chris Elvidge (NOAA-USA) (presentation by VTC)   Slide Download Here
Abstract: The existence of Defense Meteorological Satellite Image data (DMSP) is well known. Nocturnal light data has been used as an indicator of economic activities. The data is being used to estimate population size and economic activity in various places on the earth, such as the expansion of urban areas, energy consumption and GDP. Earth's nocturnal light data, collected by multiple satellites from 1992, 2000 and 2008 are provided by Earth Observation Group, NOAA. Overlaying DMSP maps of rice cultivation areas, we tried to figure out the change of agricultural area with spatial information. The comparison between obtained datasets and statistical datasets provided by FAO and USDA were conducted.
Key Words: Night Time Light Data, Vegetation data, FAOSTAT, USDA

2. "A new methodology for creation of DMSP-OLS nighttime mosaic image " Izumi Nagatani, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries - JAPAN)   Slide Download Here
Abstract: A new methodology for creation of the DMSP-OLS nighttime mosaic image was developed. It is simple and fast processing method to be implemented in the satellite image database system (SIDaB).The main feature of this method is selecting files and calculating sun zenith angle to eliminate the sun light for each pixel. The product image shows earth surface lights without sun glare and moon light reflection of clouds. The threshold of sun zenith angle was decided in this study and a city light dataset was created.

3. " Estimating the Information and Communication Technology Development Index (IDI) using nighttime satellite imagery " - Tilottama Ghosh (CIRES-USA), Paul Sutton (U. Denver-USA), Chris Elvidge (NOAA-USA)   Slide Download Here

Session Three:
1. " Steel Stock Estimation for Building and Civil Construction by Satellite Image " Feng-Chi Hsu (U. Tokyo - Japan), Yasunari Matsuno (U. Tokyo - Japan), Christopher. D. Elvidge (NOAA-USA)   Slide Download Here
Steel is the most widely used metal in the world. Many studies related to material flow analysis of steels have been conducted for Japan, Asian countries and the world. However, traditional methods for accounting its stock are quite dependent on data availabilities. To overcome this problem, we proposed a methodology to estimate steel stock based on satellite images. Previous studies showed that night time light images collected by satellites have strong correlation with human activities, e.g. electricity consumption, CO2 emissions, GDP, etc., which are also linked to the amount of steel stock. In this study, night time light image was used along with land cover data to estimate the building and civil construction steel stock in Japan and Asian countries. Analysis was first performed within Japan for each prefecture, and then the result was applied countrywide for Japan, China, South Korea and Taiwan. It was found that the building steel stock showed high correlation with urban night time light while civil construction steel stock was better described by total night time light (urban and peri-urban).

2. " A 2010 Mapping of the Constructed Surface Area Density for S.E. Asia - Preliminary Results " - Paul Sutton (U. Denver-USA), Chris Elvidge NOAA-USA), Benjamin T. Tuttle (CIRES-USA), Daniel Ziskin (CIRES-USA), Kimberly Baugh (CIRES-USA), Tilottama Ghosh (CIRES-USA)   Slide Download Here
Presentation will be via You Tube.
Human beings around the world build, use and maintain constructed impervious surfaces for shelter, transportation and commerce. It is a universal phenomenon - akin to clothing - and represents one of the primary anthropogenic modifications of the environment. Expansion in population numbers and economies combined with the popular use of automobiles has lead to the sprawl of development and a wide proliferation of constructed impervious surfaces. Constructed impervious surfaces are both hydrological and ecological disturbances. However, constructed surfaces are different from most other types of disturbances in that recovery is arrested through the use of materials that are resistant to decay and are actively maintained. The same characteristics that make impervious surfaces ideal for use in construction produce a series of effects on the environment. Impervious surfaces alter sensible and latent heat fluxes, causing urban heat islands. ISA alters the character of watersheds by increasing the frequency and magnitude of surface runoff pulses. The increased overland flow alters the shape of stream channels, raising water temperatures, and sweeping urban pollutants into aquatic environments. Hydrologic consequences of ISA include increased flooding, reductions in ground water recharge, and reductions in surface water quality. A widely accepted scale for the impacts of ISA on holds that watershed areas are stressed if they contain 1-10% ISA, impacted if they contain 10%-25% ISA and are degraded if the contain more than 25% ISA . We present a new map of the density of constructed surface in S.E. Asia derived from DMSP nighttime lights and LandScan population count data.

3. " Population detection profiles of DMSP-OLS night-time imagery by regions of the world " Christopher N.H. Doll (United Nations University - Institute of Advanced Studies - Japan)   Slide Download Here
Abstract: One emerging application of night-time light imagery focuses on estimating levels of access to electricity globally (Doll & Pachauri, 2010; Elvidge et al., 2010). A central consideration of such studies is the population density which can be consistently detected from night-time light imagery. Whilst numerous studies have addressed the relationship to light and population statistics in order to predict population, the use of spatially explicit population databases allows for a more detailed description of these relationships. This paper reports the variation of different detection profiles of two publically available gridded population datasets. These are disaggregated by region to reveal a vast contrast in what we may assume to be observable population in different parts of the world. A dynamic trend emerges with respect to levels of development with the most developed nations hypothesized to be the theoretical minimum observable population density. Beyond contributing to the analysis of areas of the world without access to electricity, more fundamentally, this analysis addresses a basic question about night-time lights and how it relates to population globally and in particular the relative merits of two commonly used population databases.

Session Four:
1. " A Sixteen Year Record of Gas Flaring Volume Estimates for S.E. Asia " - Chris Elvidge(NOAA-USA), Daniel Ziskin (CIRES-USA), Kimberly Baugh(CIRES-USA), Tilottama Ghosh (CIRES-USA)   Slide Download Here
Abstract: We have produced annual estimates of national and gas flaring in S.E. Asia from 1994 through 2009 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane). Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Gas flaring was found in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of gas that was simply burnt as waste in previous years.

2. " Estimating census metrics at a sub-national level using radiance calibrated DMSP-OLS night-time images " - Koel Roychowdhury (RMIT University - School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences - Australia), Simon Jones (RMIT University - School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences - Australia), Colin Arrowsmith (RMIT University - School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences - Australia), Karin Reinke (RMIT University - School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences - Australia)   Slide Download Here
Abstract: Census is an important demographic database which is still conducted manually in many countries of the world. Being a lengthy and expensive process, census is conducted only every ten years in many big countries such as India. This paper demonstrates the use of DMSP-OLS night-time images for predicting selected census metrics at various spatial scales, for administrative regions in the state of Maharashtra, India. Unlike other previous attempts to use composite DMSP-OLS night time images, this research compares the utility of both single orbit fixed gain and composite images separately. Multiple Regression Models (MRM) are proposed to predict important metrics of development such as: the proportion of households using cars, jeeps and vans; proportion of permanent houses; and percentage of households having television. Results show that MMR models using standard deviation of both radiance and brightness values are more useful in predicting these metrics (for example, for the model predicting percentage of households with television, the adjusted r2 = 0.77 for p < 0.05) than those using both mean and standard deviations. Furthermore, areas with a complex spatial arrangement, such as a large perimeter to area ratio or highly elongated shape, had the greatest errors (more than 20%) in predicting these metrics. The proposed method has utility in estimating metrics of change in key census attributes at a variety of sub-national spatial levels.

3. " Disaggregation of national fossil fuel CO2 emissions using a global power plant database and DMSP nightlight data " - Tomohiro Oda (National Institute for Environmental Studies - JAPAN), Shamil Maksyutov (National Institute for Environmental is Elvidge (NOAA - USA)  Slide Download Here
Abstract: We have developed a high-resolution gridded inventory of global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Previous inventories were made by using population statistics as proxies for the spatial distribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Presumed in the use of such statistics is correlation between human population and their activities. That assumption is valid at national and state levels. The correlation, however, gets weaker beyond those spatial scales. A better approach was necessary for high-resolution emission mapping. Herein, we show a two-step scheme to disaggregate national CO2 emissions. Power plant emissions were allocated to where they lobal power plant database. Emissions from other sources were distributed using DMSP satellite-observed nightlight dataset. Here, we used the radiance calibrated lights data that contain fewer saturated pixels than what regular DMSP nightlight data products have. The resulting inventory was compared with several existing inventories, using the US Vulcan emission map (10 km x 10 km resolution) as a reference. Our inventory was the closest to the Vulcan data among the others.

Group dinner at nearby location for further discussion!

 Remarks : TBD

© Copyright 2009 APAN | | Last updated: 17 Aug 2010