Internet of Things for Agriculture
Chairs : J. Adinarayana and Eui-Nam Huh (chair)
Ye-Nu Wan and Takuji Kiura (Co-chair)
Members : AG WG members
Objectives : With the advent of precision farming and Geo-ICTs, which support the food safety and security concerns, one need to connect and network various devices that allow in field for effective communication and dissemination of dynamic agricultural processes/phenomena. The Smart agriculture with the help of application of IoTs also require to have policy guidelines and federated testbed. These objectives are proposed to achieve through a collaboratives work between the relevant APAN Working Groups of AG WG and IoTs.
Target Audience : Researchers in agricultural sciences, Researchers in climatic technologies, Researchers in embedded technologies, Students, Farmers organization leaders, Agricultural policy makers.
Expected Number of Participants : 30
Agenda : J. Adinarayana and Eui-Nam Huh (chair),Ye-Nu Wan and Takuji Kiura (Co-chair)

Title: Cloud of Things

Author: Eui-Nam Huh Kyung Hee University, Korea

Integration of Internet of Things(IoT) with Cloud Computing is gaining importance, with the way the trend is going on in ubiquitous computing world. Literally, everything is going to be connected to the Internet and its data will be used for various progressive purposes, creating not only information from it, but also, knowledge and even wisdom. Internet of Things (IoT) becoming so pervasive that it is becoming important to integrate it with cloud computing because of the amount of data IoT's could generate and their requirement to have the privilege of virtual resource utilization and storage capacity, but also, to make it possible to create more usefulness from the data generated by IoT's and develop smart applications for the users. Integration of IoT with Cloud Computing, referred here as Cloud of Things, requires smart gateway to perform the rich tasks and preprocessing, which sensors and light IoTs are not capable of doing. This presentation focuses on some of the key challenges involved in CoT and the proposal of smart gateway based communication." - Slides

Title: Realizing open, standards based approach to Internet of Things in Agriculture

Authors: A Paventhan, ERNET India, Bengaluru

In order to realize Internet of Things, the support for interoperable standards and protocols in resource constrained devices is important. IETF 6LoWPAN stack is central to extending IPv6 protocol to various layer 2 technologies such as IEEE 802.15.4 operating in both 2.4 GHz and sub-1 GHz, Bluetooth Low Energy, ITU-T G.9959 and so on. While the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a web transfer protocol designed for resource constrained network like 6LoWPAN networks. This talk will present various emerging IoT standards in the context of Agriculture and discuss the challenges in the real field deployment for real time agriculture monitoring and control over the Web.

Title: Becoming technological advanced - IOT applications in smart agriculture

Authors: Joe-Air Jiang, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (INVITED SPEAKER)

In recent years, precision agriculture (PA) has become an important issue. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and IOT might be great tools to monitor environmental parameters and plant growth in agricultural applications, because these two technologies can provide high-resolution spatiotemporal sensing data extracted from real world physical/analog signals. In Taiwan, there are many small farms and contract greenhouse producers working independently. Through the combination of WSNs and cloud computing, sensing data can be automatically inputted to agricultural cloud services. Currently, a variety of environmental monitoring systems have been developed, and they have used monitoring data to perform data mining tasks and statistical analyses. For example, remote pest monitoring systems that used WSNs to collect environmental parameters and control pest sensors have been proposed. A pest population forecast system was also developed and pest behavior analyses were conducted via data-mining skills using the data obtained from the monitoring systems. Such information will help farmers largely reduce the damage caused by pests. Moreover, for automatic greenhouses, their goal is to control environmental parameters while monitoring pest populations. For example, an automatic greenhouse research project has been conducted. The main contributions of this project are to increase the productivity of corps and provide productivity forecast. Additionally, for ecological monitoring a remote visual monitoring system has been developed to observe the critically endangered species of tern. The special features of this system were energy-efficient designs, autonomous operation and optimal sensor scheduling. The end goal of all of the monitoring systems mentioned in this talk is not only to develop environmental monitoring systems but also to apply these systems to real-world scenarios.

Title: Development and Installation of a System of Urban Flood Monitoring Stations in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Dr. Alvin E. Retamar, Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Republic of the Philippines

The Philippines is visited by 19 tropical storms on average each year. With every storm that comes in, flooding is likely not far behind. Of interest is the level of flooding in urban areas, such as Metro Manila, where there is high concentration of people and vehicular traffic mainly because of business centers and residences. To date, the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) has identified 183 roads in Metro Manila that are prone to flooding. To further improve public service, the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), in partnership with the MMDA, has embarked on a project that intends to monitor the level of flooding in these flood-prone streets and subsequently issue public warnings and bulletins. The monitoring stations use a combination of cameras for visuals and ultrasonic or pressure sensors to determine the level of flooding. Likewise, a rain gauge is installed to correlate amount of rain with flood level. The cameras will send pictures of traffic condition and flood levels with subsequent image processing to determine the flood level from the photo automatically. This serves as a redundant scheme for flood level measurement and a way to cross-check the values attained by other sensors. The data are sent via GPRS to a central server for archiving and processing. To inform the public, a web-based visualization tool and a native mobile device application will be developed. Likewise, LED display systems will be deployed on the road to inform motorists of flood levels so that they can decide whether to take another route or stay put in a safer place. For this project, a total of 50 stations will be initially deployed. - Slides

Title: Embedded Decision Support System (DSS) for IoT Application in Precision Agriculture

Authors: Mohd Fadlee Abd Rasid, Borhanuddin M Ali, N Abd Kadir, Putrajaya University of Malaysia, Malaysia

Wireless Sensor Network is seen as an enabler for the adoption and implementation of precision agriculture in Malaysia. Precision agriculture is concerned with whole farm management aided by the information and communication technology (ICT) to optimize returns on inputs while preserving resources with regards to crop science, environmental protection, and economics aspects. Thus, vital information can be provided in terms of farm record keeping, improve the decision making, foster a greater traceability process, and enhance the inherent quality and marketing of farm products.

The choice of agriculture as a sector to be targeted is greatly influenced by the acceptance on the use of technology for daily agriculture operation. Generally, green house and fertigation system based farms are more suitable for the implementation of WSN technology for precision agriculture. Therefore, horticulture was the sub-sector we focused on, specifically addressing high value food crops such as chili, tomatoes and rock melon.

The WSN presented here was used in precision agriculture with embedded decision support system and automation. The deployment of the system allowed farmers to perform micro-level monitoring and researchers to do semantic analysis that generate precise scientific knowledge on horticulture operation. The micro level systematic collection of daily farm environment and condition includes data and growth of food crops.

The WSN-based system consists of an embedded gateway, fertigation controller, and sensor nodes deployed at the three plots. The gateway is capable of collecting\ various greenhouse parameters from wireless sensor nodes as well as wired nodes such as the electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soil temperature, light intensity, humidity, and soil moisture. The installed fertigation system is based on a venture system and the controller assisted by Decision Support System (DSS) resided in the gateway automatically controls the operation. Based on the sensor reading at the fertilizer mixer compared to the sensor reading inside the RPH, the gateway will guide the controller to trigger the pump and valve. The collected data is temporarily stored in the gateway before it is permanently saved in a remote database. User with remote personal computer (PC) can access the gateway through the Internet using a web based monitoring application. The decision support system for alerting and feedback control mechanism can be managed and customized through an intuitive user interface. User's custom fertigation recipe can be managed through a calendar-based interface. This allows users to easily organize their scheduled fertigation and irrigation plan; and integrate it with the feedback control rules in the case when the specified optimal parameters are not met.

Title: IoT platform for geospatial crop water management

Authors: Amey Bhale, Rahul Tiwari, Suryakant Sawant, Surya Durbha and J Adinarayana, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India

The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm aims to bring intelligent interconnection of objects in the physical world through information sensing and dissemination devices connected to internet using network protocol and information systems. The IoT gives many opportunities for new applications and provide opportunity in the semi-organized sector such as agriculture. Crop water requirement, the one of the major components responsible to achieve sustainable agriculture, and its temporal and spatial changes provide key information for irrigation scheduling, water resource planning, and better decision-making. However, to make cost-effective platform and for better knowledge discovery, it is essential to design a standardized architecture and use open tools/platform.

A service based platform has been designed through integration of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specified service architectures such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Sensor Observation Service (SOS). The SOS is used to retrieve the distributed sensor observations through web for interpolation of irrigation requirement over the field using water budget equation, and the resulting output would be displayed as a coverage/layer map. Further, to provide spatial crop water requirement estimates and for field level implementation, an android based cost-effective user friendly client is developed with the open source tools to assist the stakeholders for better irrigation resources management. Using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and IoT technology a prototype automated smart drip irrigation system has been designed with open hardware platform. The spatio-temporal crop water requirement layers are used to calculate valve operation timings and optimum irrigation strategies. The hardware, software and protocols acts as middleware in the backbone of IoT technology. The study shows that field level spatio-temporal precise irrigation estimations has the potential to conserve and judiciously utilize available water resources. Amalgamation of GIS and SOS based service oriented architecture with IoT setup provides capabilities to identify the water stressed regions across the field. It shows that Information Communication and Dissemination technology (ICDTs) can be employed to open up new exciting directions for research and business. Drip irrigation in particular has the potential to change the way the farms are irrigated if employed with IoT technology.

Seating Arrangement : Classroom
Video Conferencing Facility : Yes
Remarks : This Session will be continued with Ag/Wg Meeting Session